Still, there’s a lot we don’t understand. Any practice that someone or some group is seriously devoted to. Meanwhile, since the establishment of the Japanese Association of Mindfulness, this organization has seemed to focus on applying meditation as a clinical technique and excluding the characteristics of faith and religious rituals. Sugiyama (2001) summarized Japanese research on the psychology of religion. His pupil, Usa Shinichi (1927–), subsequently combined Morita therapy and Zen Buddhist concepts (Usa, 2004). Some humans simply are not comfortable with not knowing...having no answers. Psychotherapy, Mindfulness and Buddhist Meditation, http://www1.mhlw.go.jp/houdou/1103/h0319‐1_6.html, Erich Fromm, Daisetsu Suzuki, & Richard De Martino “, Zen philosopher Shinichi Hisamatsu of Kyoto University pays a personal visit to Carl G. Jung in Zürich, Switzerland, Jon Kabat‐Zinn's mindfulness‐based stress reduction (MBSR) program was developed at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Shoji Nakamura and Yutaka Haruki, the foundation of the Japanese Society of the Transnational Network for the Study of Physical, Psychological and Spiritual Well‐being and yearly workshop or symposium at the Annual Convention of the Japanese Psychological Association, Special Issue: “Eastern techniques for mental and physical health around the world” and “Eastern approaches to mental and physical health,” in, “Gathering to regard the point of contact between Buddhism, Psychology and Psychotherapy,” Kofuku‐ji, Nara, Japan, Kouzo Shimosaka, the foundation of the Association for Oriental Philosophy and Psychotherapy, Polly Young‐Eisendrath and Shoji Muramoto, the “Zen Buddhism and psychotherapy conference,” Myoshin‐ji in Kyoto and Rinsoin in Shizuoka, Japan, Special Issue: Psychological approach to Buddhism. Even in non‐religious areas of psychological study, there is attention being paid to these ideas. However, after some initial studies during this period, research on the psychology of religion decreased dramatically and there were very few notable studies for many years, in part due to the development of J. Additionally the 36th division of the APA, which covers issues of religion and psychology and became an official part of the APA in 1976, has undergone numerous name changes. The clinical application and social support of mindfulness must be involved in Buddhist‐based psychology. However, James’ prediction did not come to pass in such an immediate fashion. This last type calls for a contribution to society through psychology, psychotherapy, and Buddhism. If researchers in these domains had been familiar with the research trends in both fields, each of these areas of study might have developed more quickly. Like every other behavior psychologists have studied, religious behavior is influenced by an interaction between nature and nurture. What is popular in the understanding and interpreting of human factors in natural religious phenomena are the theories and principles taken from the psychoanalytical approach, the psychopathological approach, and the qualitative psychological approach. The psychology of religion is concerned with what psychological principles are operative in religious communities and practitioners. Specifically, the object relational approach and the Jungian approach have led to some original views on psychology and spirituality (Jones, 1991; Pargament, 2013, pp. Religion could be a by-product of a number of cognitive and social adaptations which have been extremely important in human development The way of life committed to by monks and nuns. The belief in and worship of a supernatural controlling power, especially a personal god or gods. Therefore this article focuses on the relationship between the psychology of religion and Buddhist psychology, taking into account the histories and research trends of both fields. 147–168; Spiegelman & Miyuki, 1985). Belzen and Hood (2006) indicated the relationship between the psychology of religion and general psychology. The third wave of cognitive behavior therapy has a common point of watching one's feelings plainly and not adding any evaluation by using mindfulness. This is reflected in the Forward to the book by Thich Nhat Hanh, who used the term “engaged Buddhism” for the first time. The journal publishes articles employing experimental and correlational methods, qualitative analyses, and critical reviews of the literature. In this way, the study of psychology of religion originated with studies examining individual personality before and after conversion, the development of religious faith, and attitudes towards Christianity. James said to Dharmapala: “Take my chair, and I shall sit with my students. Some forums can only be seen by registered members.  The journal "American Psychologist" published important papers on this topic in 2003. Following the early period, American psychology's push toward behaviorism resulted in the neglect of spiritual matters. Figure 2 shows this concept of the study of religion as a science. PDF | On Jan 1, 2010, David M. Wulff published Psychology of Religion | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. 400). Unfortunately, these findings have not been incorporated into the study of mindfulness. The second type includes research methods from a broader social‐scientific range generally used in sociology and anthropology (such as interviews, observation, ethnographies, and biographical analysis). In contrast to traditional psychological study, in the psychology of religion, this call for strict methodology does not pose the same problems. However, this fact has led to a variety of associations on Oriental thought and spiritual technique in Japan. Some forums can only be seen by registered members. Disclaimer: – this may be considered to be a controversial blog post and in no way do I mean to offend anybody. Since the emergence of psychology, its relation with religion has been inconsistent. Recently, I have been to two seminars about psychology. For instance, people who believe that the end of the world is imminent might be more likely to withdraw from society. The term “psychology of religion” was first used in the book, The psychology of religion: An empirical study of the growth of religious consciousness by Edwin Diller Starbuck, a student of William James and Stanley Hall (Starbuck, 1899). In contrast, mindfulness thinking seeks to create a feeling of well‐being without evaluation and acts to free individuals from automatic thought. By Arash Emamzadeh Last updated: 11 Jul 2019 ~ 2 min read. Currently, Morita therapy is also popular in China as can be seen from the establishment of the China Congress of Morita Therapy and the Morita Foundation (Wen, 1997). These modern psychotherapies using mindfulness meditation are known as the third wave of cognitive behavior therapies, following the second wave of cognitive behavior therapy, which did not include mindfulness, and the first wave of behavior therapy, which applied respondent and operant conditioning. The psychology of religion attempts to predict consequences of religious belief. Religion vs. Originally, meditation itself has carried a psychological element, as it employs first‐person psychology through introspection. ), Yokaigaku‐kogi 5 shinrigaku‐bumon. Moreover, Stanley Hall's books, Adolescence: Its psychology and its relations to physiology, anthropology, sociology, sex, crime and religion and education (Hall, 1904) and Jesus, the Christ, in the light of psychology (Hall, 1917), also contributed greatly to the field during this period. Studies on the psychology of religion began at almost the same time that the field of psychology itself was established as a science by prominent psychologists, such as Wilhelm Wundt, William James, Stanley Hall, Sigmund Freud, Carl Gustav Jung, and Gordon Allport, in the 18th century. Moreover, Buddhism might be considered an alternative form of psychological analysis, such as first‐person psychology, as Buddhism has elements of psychotherapy that allow it to bring us peace of mind. One factor here is that the results of psychological studies on religion using experimental or questionnaire methods are often very technical, so a limited number of people can understand and adopt results found in research using psychological methodology. An article by Kato (2005) presents a detailed overview of this research on Zen psychology. The results were 22 votes of agreement, 0 objections, and 8 votes of abstentions. Psychology has its roots in ancient philosophers like Socrates, Aristotle, and Plato. The third type relies on data and insights from other disciplines (such as history, theology, literature, and cultural studies). 450–457). Above all, the former functions as a network between researchers who are involved in the study or practice of oriental religion or philosophy as individuals in both foreign and domestic locales. The term “mindfulness” has gained common usage in the field of the psychology of religion. The psychology of religion and Buddhist psychology have deep historical connections. Beginning in the late 1980s, some new psychotherapeutic techniques using “mindfulness” meditation were developed. In this book, Starbuck presented results from questionnaire surveys he conducted of religious phenomena in which he asked respondents about their age of conversion, their motivation for conversion, and their mental and physical conditions at the time they adopted a new religion. Traces of Religion in Psychotherapy . Kaneko (2001a) recounts the methodology of psychology of religion in detail; the author insists that a combination of both laboratory experiments and quasi‐experimental research is desirable and notes the lack of theoretical background and the questionable validity of data as reasons for a lag in the study on the psychology of religion. Tomosada Iritani (1887–1957), who was a government official in the Ministry of Education, and later a professor at Komazawa University, a school run by the Soto Zen sect, was the first person to conduct an investigation on enlightenment in Zen Buddhism using a questionnaire in a fashion similar to that done by Starbuck (1899). Moreover, the increase in mindfulness practice may reflect a desire among individuals not to be constrained by privatized religion. Naomi Ellemers Vol. Taniguchi insists that it is necessary to pursue long‐term change in order to measure the effect of ascetic practices. Ron Kurtz (1934–2011) developed Hakomi therapy in the early 1980s. Religion has been turned into something that easily masks the harsh challenges of life. Research done on the psychology of religion seeks to gain a greater understanding of the human factors in religious phenomena, and not focus on social, cultural, geographical, or historical factors (see Figure 1). That is why meditation has become not only a simple effective clinical technique but also may influence psychological methodology in future. But because Buddhist psychology involves analyzing the mind itself, as mentioned above, ancient Buddhist psychology will involve a part of the philosophy of religion (Figure 2, lower left). The APA Handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality is widely circulated, and the problems with the psychology of religion have been well documented (Pargament, 2013). 69, 2018. Jerome S. Bruner (1915–), a “New Look” psychologist, Erich S. Fromm (1900–1980), a Neo‐Freudian, and Wolfgang Metzger (1899–1979), a Gestalt psychologist, contributed to this journal. Chapter PDF Available. Therefore, in the psychology of religion, religious scholars are not bound by specific research methods, as psychologists. Figure 4 shows the relationship between psychology of religion, Buddhist psychology and psychological study of mindfulness meditation. Buddhist psychology: Liberate your mind, embrace life, The art of ambiguity: A conversation with Zen master Hisamatsu, Psychology and Buddhism: From individual to global community, Thoughts without a thinker: Psychotherapy from a Buddhist perspective, Return to righteousness: A collection of speeches, essays and letters of the Anagarika Dharmapala, Adolescence: Its psychology and its relations to physiology, anthropology, sociology, sex, crime and religion and education, Jesus, the Christ, in the light of psychology, Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive‐behavioral tradition, An electroencephalographic study of Zen meditation (Zazen): EEG changes during concentrated relaxation, Zensyu no shinri [Psychology of Zen‐sect], The varieties of religious experience: A study in human nature, Contemporary psychoanalysis and religion: Transference and transcendence, On the conversation with Dr. Hisamatsu: Letter to the translator, On the unconscious, the self and the therapy: A dialogue, Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness, Methods of researching religion in psychology, Bibliography on Zen psychology in Japan (‐2000), Drafts of a thesis (1890–1900): Society (2), Philosophy, ethics, religion, Morita therapy: A psychotherapy in the way of Zen, Zen no shinrigaku, Zen no kouza, Zen no gaiyou, Dialectical behavioural therapy: A cognitive behavioral approach to parasuicide, Messages in memory of Professor Doctor Koji Sato, WHO kensyo niokeru kenkono teigino kaiteian nituite, Sanzen nisshi [A diary of practicing Zen meditation], An essay on Eastern philosophy: Idea of ego in Eastern philosophy, Kuroda Ryo hakasewo omou [Memory of Dr. Ryo Kuroda], APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality, A short history of the psychology of religion and spirituality: Providing growth and meaning for division 36, Mindfulness‐based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse, The psychology of religion: An empirical study of the growth of religious consciousness, Japanese study of the psychology of religion, American Buddhism: Buddhism is changing, America is changing, An overview: Psychophysiological approach to meditation in Japan, Toyo University, Inoue Enryo Memorial Center (Ed. The first attempt to apply a physiological approach, including respiratory movement and whole body exercise, to Zen meditation was made by Noboru Ohtsuka (1905–1989) under the direction of professor Ryo Kuroda (1890–1947) at Keijō Imperial University (now Seoul University in Korea; Kuroda, 1937, pp. To lose the religious context may indicate this type of meditation has a small effect on those who practice it and the increase in meditation is a boom that will soon subside. My parents sent me to yeshiva (Orthodox Jewish school) from first grade through high school. Yujiro Motora (1858–1912) is considered to be the first modern psychologist in Japan, and he also studied under Stanley Hall. After this initial inquiry into Zen and its relationship to psychology, which further included studies on the physiological psychology of Zen, attention began to be focused on mindfulness meditation. However, there have only been a few articles published on Buddhism covering areas such as Zen, the Jodo‐Shin sect, the Nichiren school, the Tendai sect and the Shingon esoteric sect (Pargament, 2013). Here's a quick video on my take. Recently the keywords “spirituality” and “mindfulness” have become common in the study of the psychology of religion. Psychology vs Religion: How Deep is the Cliff Really? The relationship between psychology of religion, Buddhist psychology and psychological study of mindfulness meditation. There is not yet an independent society for the psychology of religion in Japan, whereas in the APA, there is a formally dependent and functionally independent division called “The Society for the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.” However, a dependent group known as the “Society for the Study of Psychology of Religion” was established within the Japanese Psychological Association in 2003, and workshops or open calls for participant symposiums have been performed at annual conferences since that time. Recently, studies on the psychology of religion and Buddhist psychology have attracted attention based on the concepts of “spirituality” and “mindfulness.” Moreover, there have been a number of psychotherapeutic techniques developed that are based on mindfulness meditation. For example, Wuff (1996) stated the classic and contemporary views of the psychology of religion, examining the work of psychologists as well as social scientists, philosophers and clergy; however, there is no analysis of Buddhism in his work. Although this debate is not settled, Kaneko states it is necessary to make a clear definition of spirituality and there is greater need for social contribution in this area. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: The Spread of Buddhism from East to West. The study of the psychology of religion, in fact, is an interdisciplinary field consisting of the study of religion and the study of psychology. Similarly, Mark Epstein integrated the use of Buddhism and psychoanalysis in coping with trauma in his book Thoughts without a thinker: Psychotherapy from a Buddhist perspective (Epstein, 1995). The difference between the psychology of religion in religious studies and the study of psychology was previously documented in Matsumoto (1979). As for the study of religious techniques, such as mindfulness, there need not be an emphasis on faith, doctrine, and religious background. 3. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality ® publishes peer-reviewed, original articles related to the psychological aspects of religion and spirituality. Abstract - Figures Preview. Additionally, since many sects of Buddhism have existed and thrived simultaneously in Japan, each sect has made efforts to help people in their own way. Osamu Ando sought to combine Buddhism and transpersonal psychiatry (Ando, 1993), and also indicated that Buddhism could be used as psychotherapy (Ando, 2003). This book contributed greatly to the field, as it demonstrated that it was possible to quantify religious feelings and experiences through questionnaires using psychological methods. The concept of 阿頼耶識 ālaya‐vijñāna in this type of Buddhist teaching is often compared to the idea of the unconscious in psychoanalysis. In terms of specialized groups devoted to the study of religious aspects of psychology, both the Japanese Society of the Transnational Network for the Study of Physical, Psychological and Spiritual Well‐being (1989) and the Association for Oriental Philosophy and Psychotherapy (1999) were active or still are in this area. His methods comprised a questionnaire given to 43 out of 345 Zen practitioners and interviews with 15 Zen monks at the local temples; additionally, he included an interpretation of Buddhist sermons, Zen sayings, and Zen speeches in order to present a greater understanding of enlightenment for ancient and modern Zen monks and a detailed picture of practice in a Zen meditation hall. B. Watson's theories on behaviorism. William James was one of the first academics to bridge the gap between the emerging science of psychology and the study of religion. Buddhist psychology has a very long history. First, ancient and middle Mahayana Buddhist psychology by Guatama Buddha and his monks; second, modern psychological studies on Buddhism; and third, the movement involving an interchange of research and practice between Buddhists and psychologists or psychotherapists. Therefore the MBSR program became not simply an application of meditation technique for therapy but rather a part of these individuals’ lifestyle. Motora had a chance to experience Zen meditation under the Zen master Shaku Soen (1860–1919) at the Engaku‐ji Temple of the Rinzai Zen sect in Kamakura. City-Data Forum > General Forums > Psychology: Psychology vs religion (thoughts, psychologist, college, parent) User Name: Remember Me: Password Please register to participate in our discussions with 2 million other members - it's free and quick! Chihara (1989) revealed an underestimation of time in looking at Zen meditation, insisting that we should consider the body rhythm, the influence of the circadian rhythm in the physiological measurement, during Zen meditation. Moreover this type of interchange will allow researchers to systematize or visualize a comprehensive picture of research in each domain. Psychology 1800 Words | 8 Pages. Because the three important symbols of Buddhism—Buddha, teachings of Buddha and Buddhist monks—do not appear in this practice, clients may not feel a religious connection on this program. Psychology of Religion. A conversation and letter between Carl G. Jung (1875–1961) and Shin‐ichi Hisamatsu (1889–1980), a Buddhist philosopher, were also included (Bruner, 1959; Fromm, 1959, 1967; Jung, 1960; Jung & Hisamatsu, 1968; Metzger, Murphy, Nuttin, & Russell, 1971). Therefore this paper focuses on the relationship between the psychology of religion and Buddhist psychology as well as the history and research trends of each field. Therefore, quantitative or empirical approaches should be used to investigate mindfulness meditation in order to assess the motivations behind individuals using this technique. psychology | religion | As nouns the difference between psychology and religion is that psychology is (uncountable) the study of the human mind while religion is the belief in and worship of a supernatural controlling power, especially a personal god or gods. James Hillman, at the end of his book Re-Visioning Psychology, reverses James' position of viewing religion through psychology, urging instead that we view psychology as a variety of religious experience. Imada (1947), Matsumoto (1979) and Kaneko (2001b) have all written books outlining the psychology of religion. Psychologists consider that there are various ways in which religion may benefit both physical and mental health, including encouraging healthy lifestyles, providing social support networks and encouraging an optimistic outlook on life; prayer and meditation may also help to benefit physiological functioning. However, so far, there has been less interchange or discussion between the fields of psychology of religion and Buddhist psychology. Additionally, a larger number of specialized societies may inhibit sharing of the knowledge if no efforts are made to promote intentional interchanges. In fact, there are some societies for the study of religion, oriental thought, and Buddhism elsewhere in Japan. For example, the January 2015 issue of Developmental Psychology was a special edition entitled “Mindfulness and Compassion in Human Development.”. Moreover, Kasai (2011) regards Buddhist psychology as a movement focusing on the interchange between Buddhism and psychology and psychotherapy, similar to the psychology and religion movement outlined by Homans (1987). 57–113). Why people are religious, according to a psychology expert. by Izzy Kalman (October 2003) I had a strong religious upbringing. The first type limits itself to using or adapting standard research methods (such as questionnaires, scales, tests, and experiments). In short, there are three types of Buddhist psychology.