It is a basal portion and made up of two parts: the proximal cardo and the distal stipes. Present on antennae, mouth palpi, anal cerci and distal leg seg­ments. In fact, the wings are the membranous outgrowths of the body wall, supported by a network of slender and branched tubules, called nervures or veins. Cockroach has several types of sense organs (= receptors). The opening of the spiracles is regulated by the sphineters. Paired, given off from the brain and end in the compound eyes and the antennae. Thereafter, the food reaches the gizzard. Each vas deferens arises from each testis and opens into ejaculatory duct through seminal vesicle. Three nerves arise from the occipital ganglion. Each ovary consists of eight ovarioles or ovarian tubules which produce ova. It has a long and coiled alimentary canaldivided into- foregut, midgut, and hindgut. As already mentioned above the two diaphragms separate the blood-filled sinuses. The respiratory system of cockroach includes: There are ten pairs of slit-like openings, the spiracles or stigmata situated on either side of the body wall. When the cockroach is at rest, its oxygen requirement is less. Several pairs of ner­ves from each thoracic ganglion innervate the muscles, appendages and other organs in the corresponding segment. The frons is followed by a rectangular plate, the clypeus. 4. The sensillae for smell are mainly found on the antennae, and maxillary and labial palps. Feature of cockroach 3. From the fluid oxygen diffuses into the cells, where it is consumed. With the help of antennae, the cockroaches can detect the presence of food and the object in front. It leads into the rectum. The respiratory system of cockroach is more efficient than that of earthworm as there are definite respiratory organs. The fore and hind-guts are formed by ectoderm and are lined by the cuticle in­ternally, while the mid-gut development is from endoderm of the embryo and not lined by the cuticle. COCKROACH The slide contain about- 1. The atrium has a valve (a closing device) and bristly plates (filtering apparatus) to keep out dust particles, parasites and water. These tubules extract metabolic wastes like potassium and sodium urate, water and carbon dioxide from the blood (7A.35). Inner margin of each mandible bears teeth, while on its upper inner edge, a soft lobe, the prostheca, is present. Essay # 5. Two are placed on each side of the thorax; one between pro-and mesothorax and the other between meso-and metathorax. Terminal branches of tracheal tubes are called tracheoles which carry oxygen to the entire body. A Labelled Diagram Of Neuron with Detailed Explanations. The latter are used to carry eggs to the oothecal chamber. The conglobate gland is as­sociated with the ejaculatory duct. Hence, the tracheoles remain empty and the inspired air directly reaches the tissue cells for gaseous exchange. Nervous System 12. The process by which the growth of the protoplasm is increased by the absorbed food is called assimilation. The respiratory system in insects differs from that of humans. The styles of male and the gonapophyses are possibly relics of appendages. i. Answer Now and help others. When both the mandibles work simultaneously in a horizontal plane, the food matter is cu and masticated into fine and smaller pieces. The pericardium also bears a number of perforations and as a result, the pericardial cavity is in communi­cation with the perivisceral cavity or the haemocoel. It is a tubular thin walled structure and succeeds anterior part of the thorax. A pair of many jointed, long, slender feelers or antennae are present just below the eyes. This part of a into mandible is divisible into grinding region and incising region. They fly very rarely as they are not good fliers. The body of cock­roach is distinctly divided into three re­gions, viz., head, thorax and abdomen. Interaction of Cockroach with Mankind: Cockroaches cause damage to the household materials such as clothes, purses, shoes, etc. The frog feeds up on small insects, worms, slugs, snails etc. It consists of three segments. Classification of cockroach 2. In the male, the sternum of the ninth segment bears a pair of short styles. They absorb nitrogenous waste products from the haemolymph and synthesize uric acid from these for storage. Branched tubes known as trachea open through 10 pairs of small holes called spiracles or stigmata, present on the lateral side of the body. A pair of thick, opaque, brown plates, the elytra or anterior wings are attached to the anterior border of the tergum of the mesothorax. Heart 8. It comprises the ileum, colon, rectum and anus. In cockroach, respiration takes place through a small opening on the sides of its body called spiracles. 7. These cells contain symbiotic bacteria which help in synthesis of some amino acids and vitamins and of glycogen from glucose. The cavity is bounded anteriorly by the labrum, pos­teriorly by the labium, laterally by the mandibles and maxillae. The nerve cord bears nine pairs of ganglia, three pairs in the thoracic segments and six pairs in the first six abdominal seg­ments. How the vascular cambium is responsible for secondary growth? Each lobule contains several types of cells. Respiratory System. The last abdominal ganglion supplies nerves to the sixth abdominal segment and other segments behind. Essay # 6. 25.30). The nervous system of cockroach is divisible into three groups. The fused base form two sclerites, submentum and mentum. By the successive contraction of the chambers of the heart, haemolymph is driven forward and poured in the haemocoel through the aorta. Aggregates of specialised cells, arranged parallely or in the shape of a fan on the legs. The brain is connected with the sub-oesophageal ganglia by a pair of short, stout nerves, running around the oesophagus. Present on the labial palps and their adjacent areas and ridges on the segments of the leg. A narrow tube, running from the gizzard to the hindgut. The antenna is made up of many segments which are called podomeres. In addition to the main heart there are present very small accessories “hearts” or pulsatile vesicles one at the base of each antenna located in the head, to pump the blood from the head sinuses to the antenna. There are present twelve pairs of fan shaped and triangular alary muscles; their narrow ends are inserted into terga, while their broader ends are attached to dorsal diaphragm. Nymphs undergo moulting or ecdysis, in which the casting of older skin takes place. It consists of a proximal large part, the submentum, the middle small mentum and the distal pre-mentum. They are numerous small sacs which store the sperms. Cockroaches are omnivorous in diet, feeding on almost all kinds of food matter including human food, paper, leather, cloth and even dead bodies of their fellows (show cannabilism). Each consists of a protopodite bearing a double endopodite having lacinia and galea and a five-jointed exopodite. Numerous fine pore canals which are spirally coiled tubes traverse vertically through the endocuticle and exocuticle of the body wall of cockroach. It consists of ten segments. The seminal vesicles are present on the ventral surface of the anterior part of the ejaculatory duct. A pair of lateral ingluvial nerves arises from the ingluvial ganglion posteriorly over the crop. Well Label Diagram Of Cockroach PDF Download. Spermatophores packed with sperms 0are transferred to female during mating and the sperms are temporarily stored in the spermathecae. 1. The lower jaws (maxilla) are thread-like structures which move Ultimately, the trachea divides into fine branches known as tracheoles. Differentiate between Male and Female Cockroach, Parts of Nervous System of Cockroach (explained with diagram), Collection and Structure of Arthropods | Zoology. The wall of the spiracles is provided with fine bristles to check the entry of dust particles while oxygen enters the respiratory tubes, the tracheae, for respiration. Respiratory System of Cockroach: Being terrestrial, cockroach utilizes atmospheric oxygen for respiration. The secretion of phallic gland forms the outer most layer of the spermatophore. The first pair is placed between the pro- and mesothroax and the second pair lies between meso- and metathorax. The sclerites are joined with one another by thin flexible, soft articular or arthro­dial membranes. Then, place the cockroach backside down against the gel and using pins pin down all both of its wings, and then remove all 6 of its legs. At some places, certain processes (pro­jections) of exoskeleton extend into the body and form endoskeleton elements. The wall of the opening between the pharynx and the oesophagus is thick, muscular and the open­ing is guarded by a sphincter. The terminal tarsomere is known as pretarsus, which bears two sharp curved claws and a soft hairy pad, the pulvillus, in between the two claws. Essay # 16. Externally, each chamber is marked by constrictions and internally com­municates with the adjacent chambers through narrow passages guarded by valves. It is ectodermal in origin. The anal cerci are long and thick structures found in both male and female cock­roach and are sensitive to touch. Respiratory System 9. A movable chitinous flap, the labrum hangs from the lower edge of the clypeus. Proteins are used for growth, repair, etc. Since they also live in sewage pipes and gutter holes, they carry harmful germs of diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, typhoid, tuberculosis, etc. The anterior pro-thorax, middle mesothorax and posterior metathorax. A thin plate, the epipharynx, is fused to the inner surface of the labrum. All the three pairs of jointed legs are similar in structure. Most of the digestion is carried out in the midgut. 25.30). Cockroaches are oviparous, viz., they lay eggs. 2. Nerves arising from the ganglia of the central nervous system constitute the pe­ripheral nervous system. It is the terminal short thick walled structure. It is actually formed by the fusion of three pairs of ganglia. They exhibit sexual dimorphism, e., male and female individuals can be distinguished externally. The pymphs are soft-bodied, white, without gonads and resemble the adult, except being smaller in size and wings lacking. Struc­turally, they are similar to those of the prawn except that the pigment between the omma­tidia are not retractile. Essay # 15. A peritrophic membrane is formed around the food in the mid gut. In both the sexes the genital aperture is surrounded by some sclerites, known as gonapophyses. They possess sensory bristles, which are tactile in nature. A segment is partially covered at the anterior end by its preceding segment. The nymphs gradually change into adults. Anatomy 4. The ventral diaphragm also projects upwards and separates the perivisceral sinus from the perineural sinus. Femur it is a long and the stoutest part of the leg, bearing sensory bristles. Hypopharynx directs the saliva towards the food in the preoral cavity. Here, we will learn about the respiration in cockroach which is a black or brown colored insect and live in damp places. The walls of the tracheoles allow gaseous exchange and diffusion takes place between the cell sap and the lumen of the tube. e. The undigested part of the food is passed to the hindgut, where water and salts are absorbed, the residue temporarily stored there and finally egested through anus. 25. Using a virtual dissection allows us to take a closer look at body systems using technology such as computer software. The nymphs undergo several moultings and the stage between two suc­cessive moultings is called instar. The thoracic ganglia are large in size. Now coming to the reproductive system, males and females have separate ones, hence dioecious. In cockroach, the respiratory system has a network of the trachea. This mem­brane is permeable to digestive enzymes and digested foods. Endoskeleton 5. April 11th, 2019 - ADVERTISEMENTS In this article we will discuss about the dissection of cockroach Also learn about 1 The Alimentary System 2 Dissection of Salivary Apparatus 3 Dissection of Nervous System 4 Dissection of Reproductive System Killing The cockroach is usually killed with chloroform It can be killed successfully by drowning in water It is a slit like opening of the alimentary canal lying at the hind end of the abdomen below the 10th tergum. Endocrine System 9. Its wall consists of strong circular muscles which are needed by the gizzard for grinding. Dissection of several organ systems will be performed on one cockroach, so throughout your study of the digestive tract take care not to damage other internal structures/organs unnecessarily. All the filaments of the eight ovarioles of each ovary are united to form a ligament and the ligaments of both ovaries meet in the middle line and get attached to the fat bodies. The two lateral ones are called occipital nerves: each runs to the corpus cardiacum (Endo­crine gland) of its side. Ten pairs of respiratory apertures called stigmata, two in the thorax and eight in the abdomen are present on the sides of the body. They also eat and destroy human food such as bread, fruits, cheese, etc. iv. The first pair is mesothoracic and attached with the tergum of the mesothorax. These muscles play an important role during inspiration and expiration. 7 to 8 in number, at the junction of the fore and midgut (Fig. They are also sensitive to touch. Appendages are seven pairs; four pairs in the head and three pairs in the thorax: Cephalic Appendages (Figs. The pair fused to form a labium. It is a single structure which represents the fused second pair of maxillae, lying behind the mouth and forming a sort of lower lip. The body is dorsoventrally flattened, elongated and bilaterally symmetrical. The posterior end of the abdomen bears the following appendages: These are paired, jointed outgrowths, which arise from the 10th tergum. When the alary muscles relax, the dorsal diaphragm becomes arched so that e space of the pericardial sinus is reduced and the blood from the pericardial sinus is forced into the heart through the ostia. Both the diaphragms are perforated by a number of apertures through which all the three sinuses are inter-connected. (With Methods)| Industrial Microbiology, How is Cheese Made Step by Step: Principles, Production and Process, Enzyme Production and Purification: Extraction & Separation Methods | Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation of Olives: Process, Control, Problems, Abnormalities and Developments, Essay on the Habitat and Habits of Cockroach, Essay on the Digestive System of Cockroach, Essay on the Digestive Glands of Cockroach, Essay on the Respiratory System of Cockroach, Essay on the Mechanism of Respiration of Cockroach, Essay on the Excretory System of Cockroach, Essay on the Endocrine System of Cockroach, Essay on the Reproductive System of Cockroach, Essay on the Interaction of Cockroach with Mankind, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. The crop acts as a temporary reservoir of food, where it can be retained for about 60 days. The female cockroach bears broad abdomen, brood pouch, but lacks anal styles, as present in the males. The Malpighian tubules are thread-like yellow structures of variable number present at the junction of the mid and hindgut. A sensilla has a modified sensory cell innervated by a nerve fibre, trichogen cell and tormogen cell. The latter help in the absorption of water. Insect physiology includes the physiology and biochemistry of insect organ systems.. An ocellus appears as a white area near the base of each antenna. (v) The hormones secreted by the various endocrine glands reach the specific effector organs through the blood circulation. The movement of the wings is controlled by a special set of muscles. Morphology- Head , Thorax , Abdomen 4. Certain cells, the nephrocytes associ­ated with the fat bodies and the hypodermis also serve as excretory structures. 3. iii. Each thoracic leg segment bears a pair of walking legs. The abdomen gradually narrows down posteriorly. Digestive Glands 7. The first pair of abdominal spiracles is dorsal in position and lies on the lateral margins of the first abdominal tergum. 3. It is a small, hard podomere which lies next to the coxa. Circulatory System in Cockroaches Zoology Notes. Its front part is formed of two opposing plates and the hind part consists of curved serrate lobe which bears two large and pointed teeth like processes at its free end, several small teeth like processes along its border and a hook at its basal part. Sense Organs 14. Compound Eyes and Other Details. The spiracles are regulated by the sphincters. iv. It also eats dead bodies of its fellows (cannibalism) and other insects. Small tubules provide nourishment to the sperms Spermatophore is a pear-shaped capsule, about 1.5 mm long, having a three-layered wall and containing spermatic fluid. The first two pairs are known thoracic spiracles lying in thorax and the remaining eight pairs are called abdominal spiracles and are present in the first eight abdominal segments. The breadth of the anterior arm is 0.025 ± 0.005 mm. Thus, each compound eye contains about 2000 ommatidia. It is a space lying in front of the mouth to receive the food, hence named as pre-oral cavity. Two large black coloured, kidney shaped, dorsolaterally placed compound eyes lie on the top of the head. Cut the lateral membrane (pleura) between the terga and sterna of the thorax and abdomen with a pair of fine scissors. They meet the sub-oesophageal ganglion. Essay on the Respiratory System of Cockroach: The respiration in cockroach is aerial. Sense organs include a pair of compound eyes, thigmoreceptors, chemoreceptors, auditory receptors and proprioreceptors. A pair of colleterial glands open be­hind the spermathecae. iii. They are also called wing-covers or tegmina or elytra. Endocrine organs, corpora cardiaca, cor­pora allata and prothoracic glands constitute the endocrine system. The absorbed food is transferred into the blood present around the alimentary canal. The front part of this cavity lies close to the female genital pore and hence called the genital chamber, while the posterior part is called vestibulum or oothecal chamber, because during the breeding it contains ootheca, a structure which contains 14-16 eggs (fertilized ova). Further extension of the canal would be called a crop that has a similar structure like the esophagus. Respiration in Cockroach. The testes are prominent in young insects, but get reduced in adults.The sperms produced by the follicles of the testes are transferred to the vas deferens through the vasa efferentia. They are probably concerned with some intermediary metabolism at time of ecdysis. It lies above the oesophagus in the head. The principle excretory organs of cockroach consists of malpighian tubules. These are a pair of sacs of unequal size, lying in the 6th abdominal segment. Phallomeres or Male gonapophyses or External genitalia: There are three chitinous structures that surround the male gonophore. Cone cells are surrounded by iris pigment sheath. a. A dissection is a detailed investigation of that organism\u2019s organs and tissues. It lies below the cuticle and consists of single layered columnar cells. The first pair of spiracles is known as mesothoracic, lying in front of the mesothorax between the bases of first and second pairs of legs. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. 2. Two pairs of wings are found in cockroach. It is the anterior most region of the body, which lies at right angle to the long axis. Blood is colourless since it does not contain haemoglobin. In adults, original coelom is present around the gonads. A pair of stink glands is present between the fifth and sixth abdominal terga. Two antennary nerves arise from the lateral lobes of the mid-brain and supply the antennae. In fact, the crop is a large, sac-like dilatation of oesophagus. A pair of small spheri­cal glands, 0.5 mm in diameter, ectodermal in origin, close to the oesophageal glands, behind corpora cardiaca. There are present two pairs of thoracic spiracles. The mid-gut continues into the ileum. They are two very much branched tubuler glands, which are unequal in size and embedded in the fat. The nerve cord is formed by the fusion of two solid nerve cords and run backwards from the sub-oesophageal ganglia along the mid-ventral line of the thorax and abdomen. The atmospheric air directly comes in contact with the various organs of the body and therefore, the blood is not used for respiration. The ocellae or fenestrae or ocellar spots located near the compound eyes are regarded undeveloped simple eyes by some and functional by others because they are sensitive to light. A pair of compound eyes, appearing as Reni form black patches, are present on the sides of the head. The latter opens to the outside by an opening, the male genital pore lying close to ventral phallomere. Cockroaches are unisexual, viz., male and female sexes are found in different individuals. Rectal glands in the wall absorb water and salt and help in osmoregulation. Respiratory System of Cockroach: The Periplaneta live on land and the res­piratory structures, the tracheae, are consid­ered as most, efficient for utilizing atmo­spheric oxygen. Actually it is a dilation of ileum and is the longest, relatively thicker and coiled part of hind gut. Their secretion forms the innermost layer of spermatophore. In the female, the sternum of the sev­enth segment is very much prominent. 25.30). 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